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Analytical Individual Examination

Material-specific Laboratory Analyses

Processing

Visual receiving control, drying, crushing, homogenization and processing of the samples

Pos Service Description
100

Plastic Sample Material

Clay, loam, filter cake, operating mass, etc.

101

Non-Plastic Sample Material

Claystone, shale, natural stone, hard material, etc.

102

Fired Material

Brick, ceramic, chamotte etc.

Water Content & Water Absorbency

Determination of humidity-/water content as well as the maximum water absorbency

Pos Service Description
103

Water Content / Humidity

Drying at 105 degree until weight constancy

according to DIN 18 121 

104

ENSLIN Test

Water absorbency with 24-hour measuring

according to DIN 18 132

Consistency Limits & Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)

Determination of consistency limits and total exchangeable cations

Pos Service Description
105

Consistency Limits

Atterberg method

according to DIN 18 122 & DIN 18 196 (classification)

106

Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)

Cu(II) triethylenetetramine method

Grain-Size Distribution & Grain Size Fractionation

Determination of grain-size distribution by sieving and hydrometer analysis

Grain size fractionation for fraction-oriented analyses; incl. ultrasonic treatment

Pos Service Description
107

Combined Sieve and Hydrometer Analysis

Hydrometer analysis and sieving with norm testing sieve set

according to DIN 18 123

108

Grain Size Fractionation

< 2 µm: separation in centrifugal field with high-performance centrifuge
2 - 63 µm: gravity field separation with Atterberg cylinder
> 63 µm: sieving with norm testing sieve set

Mineralogical Analyses

X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for determination of  mineral phases of raw materials and fired brick products

Pos Service Description
109

Mineral Phase Analysis (XRD)

Semiquantitative Bestimmung des Mineralbestandes der Gesamtfraktion mit XRD

110

Combined Mineral Phase Analysis (XRD & FTIR)

Semiquantitative determination of the mineral content of the overall fraction with XRD and FTIR

111

Clay Mineralogical Analysis

Semiquantitative determination of the mineral content with XRD and FTIR of the overall as well as the fraction of clay (< 2 µm); incl. ultrasonic treatment and grain size factionation

Quantitative Element Analysis

X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) for determination of main and trace elements

Determination of total (TC) and total organic carbon (TOC) with IR spectroscopy

Pos Service Description
112

X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF)

Test for 12, 20 or 40 elements

according to DIN/EN/ISO 12 677

113

Total Organic Carbon (TOC)

according to DIN ISO 10 694

114

Total Carbon (TC)

according to DIN ISO 10 694

Determination of Interfering Components

Determination of carbonate and quartz content as well as microscopic tests to check for interfering coarse components

Damage analysis of negative effects in fired brick products caused by various minerals

Pos Service Description
115

Carbonate Content

Sum parameter of all carbonates (calcite, dolomite etc.)

according to DIN 18 129

116

Analysis of Coarse Carbonate Fraction

Determination of coarse carbonate of the fraction > 250 µm; incl. fractionation and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of all crystalline carbonate phases

117

Interfering Coarse Components

Microscopic-visual analysis of sieve fraction to check for interfering coarse components

carbonates, qypsum, pyrite, markasite, wood, plant residue etc.

118

Quartz Analysis

Determination of the amount of respirable quartz in the fraction < 5 µm; incl. fractionation and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)

119

Phase Analysis of Interfering Minerals

XRD and FTIR; incl. reflected light photo-micrographs

bloom defects, visible inclusions, blistering, discolorationg etc.

120

Scanning electron microscopy / EDX Analysis

Scanning electron micrographs for damage analysis of the microstructure of fired brick products; incl. photo documentation

Thermoanalytical Analyses

Determination of ignition loss

Simultaneous thermal analyses (STA) for determination of firing properties with thermogravimetric (TG) und differential thermal analysis (DTA)

Pos Service Description
121

Loss on Ignition

according to DIN 51 081 (1.050 °C)

122

CO2 determination

according to DIN ISO 10 694

123

Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA)

according to DIN 51 006 / 51 007 

Ceramic-Technological Laboratory Analyses

Ceramic-Technological Characteristic Values (CTC)

Production of specimen for determination of ceramic-technological relevant parameter, 3 specimens per firing temperature, firing in laboratory electric kiln; plus sample processing

CTC: linear dry shrinkage, firing and total shrinkage, absorption of water, ceramic body density, firing color

Pos Service Description
200

Ceramic-Technological Characteristic Values (CTC) (hand mold specimen)

Plastically driven specimens for determination of the ceramic-technological characteristics

dimensions: 80 x 40 x 15 mm 

201

Ceramic-Technological Characteristic Values (CTC) (small extruder)

Vacuumized specimens out of laboratory extruder for determination of the ceramic-technological characteristics

dimensions: 80 x 33 x 14 mm

202

Ceramic Body Thermal Conductivity and Compressive Strength

Texture-free compressed specimens for determination of thermal conductivity, density and der compressive strength of the ceramic body

dimensions: 120 x 120 x 35 mm

203

Compressive Strength

Production and firing of specimens for determination of compressive strength according to in-house standards

204

Refractoriness

Production of rod shaped specimens and determination of bending while firing

Ceramic Blanks for Firing Experiments

Production of specimen for firing experiments; incl. two-phase drying at 40 and 100 °C and air-proof packaging, shipment (extra charge for orders from abroad); plus sample processing

Pos Service Description
205

Ceramic Blanks - Hand Mold Specimen

Plastically driven specimens

dimensions: 80 x 40 x 15 mm

206

Ceramic Blanks from Small Extruder

Vacuumized specimens out of small laboratory extruder

dimensions: 80 x 33 x 14 mm

207

Ceramic Blanks from Large Extruder

Vacuumized specimens out of large laboratory extruder

dimensions: cylinder Æ 74 mm/105 mm, 124 x 44 mm, 42 x 42 mm and 250 x 65 mm, 85 x 20 mm

208

Ceramic Blanks from Hydraulic Extruder

Texture-free compressed specimens

dimensions: 120 x 120 x 35 mm

Documentation

Documentation of Results and Expert Report

Tabular documentation of examination results, expert report, geological expertises and market research

Pos Service Description
300

Tabular Documentation

Tabular documentation of examination results in PDF format, on request also by post; incl. photo documentation of test specimens

301

Documentation

Tabular documentation of examination results and examination report as supplementary explanation in PDF format, on request also by post; incl. photo documentation of test specimens

302

Expert Opinion

Documentation and assessment of examination results from terrain and laboratory tests as well as a detailed expert report with graphical illustration (as required: maps, geological profile sections, thematic maps etc.), methodological description and technical suggestions; incl. photo documentation of test specimens/cores

303

Short Expert Report

Short expert report with tabular documentation in PDF format,  on request also by post; incl. photo documentation of test specimens

304

Consultancy Appointment

Site inspections and consultancy appointments; if applicable incl. sampling, 48-hour lead time for appointment in Germany

305

Expertises, Market Research

Individual geological expertises (desk research) and market research, use of all available contacts to geological authorities, databases, etc.